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Tasirin Abubuwan Sinadari akan Halayen Farantin Karfe

Iron-carbon gami tare da abun ciki na carbon kasa da 2.11% ana kiransa karfe.Baya ga sinadarai irin su baƙin ƙarfe (Fe) da carbon (C), ƙarfe kuma yana ɗauke da ƙaramin adadin silicon (Si), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), oxygen (O), nitrogen ( N), niobium (Nb) da titanium (Ti) Tasirin abubuwan sinadarai na gama gari akan kaddarorin karfe kamar haka:

1. Carbon (C): Tare da karuwar abun ciki na carbon a cikin karfe, ƙarfin yawan amfanin ƙasa da ƙarfin ƙarfi yana ƙaruwa, amma filastik da ƙarfin tasiri yana raguwa;Koyaya, lokacin da abun cikin carbon ya wuce 0.23%, ƙarfin walda na karfe yana lalacewa.Saboda haka, abun ciki na carbon na ƙananan gami da tsarin ƙarfe da ake amfani da shi don walda gabaɗaya baya wuce 0.20%.Haɓaka abun ciki na carbon zai kuma rage juriya na lalata na yanayi na ƙarfe, kuma babban ƙarfe na carbon yana da sauƙin lalata a cikin iska.Bugu da kari, carbon iya ƙara sanyi brittleness da tsufa ji na karfe.

2. Silicon (Si): Silicon ne mai karfi deoxidizer a karfe yin tsari, da kuma abun ciki na silicon a kashe karfe ne kullum 0.12% -0.37%.Idan abun ciki na silicon a cikin karfe ya wuce 0.50%, ana kiran silicon alloying element.Silicon na iya inganta haɓakar iyakoki, ƙarfin samar da ƙarfi da ƙarfin ƙarfi na ƙarfe, kuma ana amfani da shi sosai azaman ƙarfe na bazara.Ƙara 1.0-1.2% silicon a cikin quenched da tempered tsarin karfe iya ƙara ƙarfi da 15-20%.Haɗe da silicon, molybdenum, tungsten da chromium, yana iya inganta juriya na lalata da juriya na iskar shaka, kuma ana iya amfani dashi don kera karfe mai jure zafi.Low carbon karfe dauke da 1.0-4.0% silicon, tare da musamman high Magnetic permeability, ana amfani da matsayin lantarki karfe a lantarki masana'antu.Ƙara yawan abun ciki na silicon zai rage ƙarfin walda na karfe.

3. Manganese (Mn): Manganese ne mai kyau deoxidizer da desulfurizer.Gabaɗaya, ƙarfe ya ƙunshi 0.30-0.50% manganese.Lokacin da aka ƙara fiye da 0.70% manganese a cikin carbon karfe, ana kiransa "karfe na manganese".Idan aka kwatanta da karfe na yau da kullun, ba wai kawai yana da isasshen ƙarfi ba, har ma yana da ƙarfi da ƙarfi da ƙarfi, wanda ke haɓaka ƙarfin ƙarfi da ƙarfin aiki mai zafi na ƙarfe.Karfe dauke da 11-14% manganese yana da matukar girman juriya, kuma ana amfani dashi sau da yawa a cikin guga na tono, injin injin ball, da dai sauransu.

4. Phosphorus (P): Gabaɗaya magana, phosphorus wani abu ne mai cutarwa a cikin ƙarfe, wanda ke inganta ƙarfin ƙarfe, amma yana rage robobi da taurin ƙarfe, yana ƙara sanyin ƙarfe, kuma yana lalata aikin walda da aikin lankwasa sanyi. .Sabili da haka, yawanci ana buƙata cewa abun ciki na phosphorus a cikin ƙarfe bai wuce 0.045% ba, kuma buƙatun ƙarfe mai inganci yana da ƙasa.

5. Sulfur (S): Sulfur kuma abu ne mai cutarwa a yanayin al'ada.Yi ƙarfe mai zafi mai gatsewa, rage ductility da taurin ƙarfen, da haifar da fasa yayin ƙirƙira da mirgina.Sulfur yana da illa ga aikin walda kuma yana rage juriya na lalata.Saboda haka, sulfur abun ciki yawanci kasa da 0.055%, da kuma na high quality karfe ne kasa da 0.040%.Ƙara 0.08-0.20% sulfur zuwa karfe zai iya inganta rashin iyawar mashin, wanda yawanci ake kira karfen yanke kyauta.

6. Aluminum (Al): Aluminum ne da aka saba amfani da deoxidizer a cikin karfe.Ƙara ƙaramin adadin aluminum zuwa karfe zai iya tsaftace girman hatsi da inganta tasirin tasiri;Aluminum kuma yana da juriya na iskar shaka da juriya na lalata.Haɗin aluminium tare da chromium da silicon na iya haɓaka haɓaka aikin peeling mai zafi mai zafi da juriya mai zafi na ƙarfe.Rashin hasara na aluminum shine cewa yana rinjayar aikin aiki mai zafi, aikin walda da yanke aikin karfe.

7. Oxygen (O) da nitrogen (N): Oxygen da nitrogen abubuwa ne masu cutarwa da zasu iya shiga daga iskar gas idan karfe ya narke.Oxygen na iya yin ƙarfe mai zafi mai gatsewa, kuma tasirinsa ya fi na sulfur tsanani.Nitrogen na iya sa sanyin ƙarfe na ƙarfe ya yi kama da na phosphorus.Tasirin tsufa na nitrogen na iya ƙara ƙarfi da ƙarfin ƙarfe, amma rage ductility da tauri, musamman a yanayin tsufa.

8. Niobium (Nb), vanadium (V) da titanium (Ti): Niobium, vanadium da titanium duk abubuwa ne masu tace hatsi.Ƙara waɗannan abubuwa daidai zai iya inganta tsarin karfe, tsaftace hatsi da kuma inganta ƙarfin da ƙarfin karfe.


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